Development and validation of the Sociocultural Attitudes Towards Appearance Questionnaire-4 (SATAQ-4).

The Sociocultural Attitudes Towards Appearance Questionnaire-3 (SATAQ-3) and its earlier versions are measures designed to assess societal and interpersonal aspects of appearance ideals. Correlational, structural equation modeling, and prospective studies of the SATAQ-3 have shown consistent and significant associations with measures of body image disturbance and eating pathology. In the current investigation, the SATAQ-3 was revised to improve upon some conceptual limitations and was evaluated in 4 U.S. and 3 international female samples, as well as a U.S. male sample. In Study 1, exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses for a sample of women from the Southeastern United States (N = 859) indicated a 22-item scale with 5 factors: Internalization: Thin/Low Body Fat, Internalization: Muscular/Athletic, Pressures: Family, Pressures: Media, Pressures: Peers. This scale structure was confirmed in 3 independent and geographically diverse samples of women from the United States (East Coast N = 440, West Coast N = 304, and North/Midwest N = 349). SATAQ-4 scale scores demonstrated excellent reliability and good convergent validity with measures of body image, eating disturbance, and self-esteem. Study 2 replicated the factorial validity, reliability, and convergent validity of the SATAQ-4 in an international sample of women drawn from Italy, England, and Australia (N = 362). Study 3 examined a sample of college males from the United States (N = 271); the 5-factor solution was largely replicated, yet there was some evidence of an underlying structure unique to men. Future research avenues include additional item testing and modification of the scale for men, as well as adaptation of the measure for children and adolescents. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved)
Psychological Assessment – Vol 27, Iss 1

Validation de la version française de l’Inventaire de satisfaction conjugale msi-r. / Validation of the French version of the Marital Satisfaction Inventory (MSI-R).

This study investigated the validity and reliability of the French translation of the Marital Satisfaction Inventory—Revised (MSI-R). This multidimensional measure of relationship functioning has shown its contribution in international studies but has also been used in clinical context to measure the nature and intensity of distress in a marriage or other couple relationship. Internal reliability and temporal stability, computed on a sample of 160 French-speaking couples are good and similar to those observed in previous translations. The factorial structure recently proposed by Herrington et al. (2008) has been replicated within our sample. Results confirm the 2 factors, disharmony and disaffection, are relevant and that they could be used in future research using a brief version of the MSI-R. Overall, the results support the construct validity of this measure for French-speaking couples. Some links between the scales of the questionnaire and independent criteria of relationship functioning assessed with others instruments (DCI, CPQ, PFB) have been demonstrated, as well as links with sociodemographic variables and personality traits assessed with the NEO-FFI-R. Results are discussed in the light of their theoretical and clinical implications. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved)
Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science/Revue canadienne des sciences du comportement – Vol 47, Iss 1

Validation française de l’échelle multidimensionnelle satisfaction de vie chez l’élève (Multidimensional Students’ Life Satisfaction Scale). / French validation of the Multidimensional Students’ Life Satisfaction Scale.

This study presents a validation of the Multidimensional Students’ Life Satisfaction Scale (MSLSS, Huebner, 1994) into French on the basis of an 853 student sample selected from Grades 9 and 12. The internal reliabilities of all subscales (Cronbach’s Alpha coefficient) were above the criterion of 0.70. Exploratory analysis supported a 5-factor solution, whereas the confirmatory analysis enabled the validation of a 6-factor model with 5 first-order factors fitting onto 1 second-order factor. Convergent analysis demonstrated that the MSLSS correlates well with depression and other well-being measures, as expected. The MSLSS was found to be reliable and valid for the French context. Furthermore, it appears that the scale, and more specifically its academic dimension, is moderately predictive of student achievement. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved)
Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science/Revue canadienne des sciences du comportement – Vol 47, Iss 1

Validation of direct and indirect measures of preference for sexualized violence.

Individuals differ in the extent to which they are interested in sexualized violence, as displayed in the frequent but not ubiquitous sexual interest in consensual acts of violent sexual role play and violent pornographic media in the normal population. The present research sought to develop and validate a multi-method assessment battery to measure individual differences in the preference for sexualized violence. Three indirect measures (Implicit Association Test, Semantic Misattribution Procedure, Viewing Time) were combined in an online study with 107 men and 103 women. Participants with and without an affiliation with sadomasochistic sexual interest groups were recruited on corresponding Internet platforms. Results revealed that all 3 indirect measures converged in predicting self-reported sexual interest in non-consensual sexuality. Specifically, for men all indirect measures were related to non-consensual sadistic sexual interest, whereas for women an association with masochistic sexual interest was found. Stimulus artefacts versus genuine gender differences are discussed as potential explanations of this dissociation. An outlook on the usability of the assessment battery in applied settings is delivered. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)
Psychological Assessment – Vol 26, Iss 4

Development and validation of the Hookup Motives Questionnaire (HMQ).

Despite the high prevalence rates and growing research on hooking up among college students, no multidimensional inventory exists in the literature to assess motivations for hooking up. In the current study, we report on the development and validation of the Hookup Motives Questionnaire (HMQ), designed to assess the various reasons for hooking up. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were conducted using 2 samples of college students (Campus 1, N = 401; Campus 2, N = 367). Exploratory factor analysis was undertaken to explore the psychometric properties of an initial set of 25 items, and confirmatory factor analysis was conducted to evaluate additional properties of the factor structure. The final factor structure of the HMQ contained 19 items that tapped 5 subscales representing social-sexual, social-relationship, enhancement, coping, and conformity motives. Results demonstrated good internal consistency and discriminant validity for the subscales. Moreover, criterion-related validity was satisfied by showing that HMQ subscales significantly correlated with hookup approval and behavior. Gender differences on the measures were found. The inventory offers considerable potential as a psychometrically sound instrument that may be administered to understand reasons for engaging in potentially risky hookup behaviors and used to inform the design of sexual health programs and interventions targeting young adults. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)
Psychological Assessment – Vol 26, Iss 4

Development and preliminary validation of the Racism-Related Coping Scale.

This paper describes the development and preliminary validation of the Racism-Related Coping Scale (RRCS), which we designed as a measure of the specific strategies Blacks use to deal with and resist racism. Factor analyses found 8 domains (59 items) of Racism-Related Coping for Blacks: Racially Conscious Action, Hypervigilance, Confrontation, Empowered Action, Resistance, Bargaining, Spiritual Coping, and Anger Regulation. Preliminary reliability and validity were assessed with a sample of Black participants (N = 307) using correlations with the Black Racial Identity Attitudes Scale (Helms & Parham, 1996), the Africultural Coping Systems Inventory (Utsey, Ponterotto, Reynolds, & Cancelli, 2000), and regression analyses with symptom scales of the Brief Symptom Inventory (Derogatis & Melisaratos, 1983). RRCS domains were correlated with Racial Identity Status Attitudes, Africultural Coping, and psychological symptoms. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)
Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy – Vol 6, Iss 6

Development and validation of the Hunger Sensitivity Scale (HSS) among university students.

Hunger sensitivity is a cognitive style associated with heightened distress in response to hunger sensations. We hypothesized that hunger sensitivity would be predictive of attitudes surrounding eating. Our goal was to develop and validate the Hunger Sensitivity Scale (HSS). Item generation was based on conceptual grounds. The resulting 29-item instrument was subjected to item analysis using a sample of 556 university student participants and demonstrated excellent scale score reliability. After parallel analysis and exploratory factor analysis with 50% of the sample that supported a unifactorial solution, confirmatory factor analysis (with the remainder of the sample) was conducted. After the deletion of 16 items, the unifactorial model was supported. A second study, with a separate sample of 101 university students, involved administration of the 13-item HSS along with discriminant validity measures and measures tapping eating-related attitudes. Scores on the HSS were significantly associated with measures of hunger, disinhibition, rumination, and bulimia. Discriminant validity was supported through the absence of significant correlations with general anxiety, depression, and anxiety sensitivity. With more research, the HSS may have potential clinical application through the addition of a new dimension to the existing clinical assessment armamentarium. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved)
Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science/Revue canadienne des sciences du comportement – Vol 47, Iss 1

Confirmatory factor analysis of the Moral Foundations Questionnaire: Independent scale validation in a New Zealand sample.

The Moral Foundations Questionnaire (MFQ) measures five universal moral foundations of Harm/care, Fairness/reciprocity, Ingroup/loyalty, Authority/respect, and Purity/sanctity. This study provided an independent test of the factor structure of the MFQ using Confirmatory Factor Analysis in a large New Zealand national probability sample (N = 3,994). We compared the five-factor model proposed by Moral Foundations Theory against alternative single-factor, two-factor, three-factor, and hierarchical (five foundations as nested in two second order factors) models of morality. The hypothesized five-factor model proposed by Moral Foundations Theory provided a reasonable fit. These findings indicate that the five-factor model of moral foundations holds in New Zealand, and provides the first independent test of the factor structure of the Moral Foundations Questionnaire. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)
Social Psychology – Vol 45, Iss 6

Automated facial coding: Validation of basic emotions and FACS AUs in FaceReader.

In this study, we validated automated facial coding (AFC) software—FaceReader (Noldus, 2014)—on 2 publicly available and objective datasets of human expressions of basic emotions. We present the matching scores (accuracy) for recognition of facial expressions and the Facial Action Coding System (FACS) index of agreement. In 2005, matching scores of 89% were reported for FaceReader. However, previous research used a version of FaceReader that implemented older algorithms (version 1.0) and did not contain FACS classifiers. In this study, we tested the newest version (6.0). FaceReader recognized 88% of the target emotional labels in the Warsaw Set of Emotional Facial Expression Pictures (WSEFEP) and Amsterdam Dynamic Facial Expression Set (ADFES). The software reached a FACS index of agreement of 0.67 on average in both datasets. The results of this validation test are meaningful only in relation to human performance rates for both basic emotion recognition and FACS coding. The human emotions recognition for the 2 datasets was 85%, therefore FaceReader is as good at recognizing emotions as humans. To receive FACS certification, a human coder must reach an agreement of 0.70 with the master coding of the final test. Even though FaceReader did not attain this score, action units (AUs) 1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 9, 12, 15, and 25 might be used with high accuracy. We believe that FaceReader has proven to be a reliable indicator of basic emotions in the past decade and has a potential to become similarly robust with FACS. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)
Journal of Neuroscience, Psychology, and Economics – Vol 7, Iss 4

Psychology professor says social validation, meeting expectations among reasons we overeat on Thanksgiving

Thanksgiving is a time for family, friends and feasting—lots of feasting. So is it any surprise that our eyes always seem to become so much bigger than our stomachs at this time of year?
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