Development and validation of a 6-item working alliance questionnaire for repeated administrations during psychotherapy.

Recently, researchers have started to measure the working alliance repeatedly across sessions of psychotherapy, relating the working alliance to symptom change session by session. Responding to questionnaires after each session can become tedious, leading to careless responses and/or increasing levels of missing data. Therefore, assessment with the briefest possible instrument is desirable. Because previous research on the Working Alliance Inventory has found the separation of the Goal and Task factors problematic, the present study examined the psychometric properties of a 2–factor, 6-item working alliance measure, adapted from the Working Alliance Inventory, in 3 patient samples (ns = 1,095, 235, and 234). Results showed that a bifactor model fit the data well across the 3 samples, and the factor structure was stable across 10 sessions of primary care counseling/psychotherapy. Although the bifactor model with 1 general and 2 specific factors outperformed the 1-factor model in terms of model fit, dimensionality analyses based on the bifactor model results indicated that in practice the instrument is best treated as unidimensional. Results support the use of composite scores of all 6 items. The instrument was validated by replicating previous findings of session-by-session prediction of symptom reduction using the Autoregressive Latent Trajectory model. The 6-item working alliance scale, called the Session Alliance Inventory, is a promising alternative for researchers in search for a brief alliance measure to administer after every session. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved)
Psychological Assessment – Vol 27, Iss 1

Psychometric validation of the Dysexecutive Questionnaire (DEX).

This study reported on the validation of the psychometric properties, the factorability, validity, and sensitivity of the Dysexecutive Questionnaire (DEX) in 3 clinical and nonclinical samples. A mixed sample of 997 participants—community (n = 663), psychiatric (depressed [n = 92] and anxious [n = 122]), and neurologically impaired (n = 120)—completed self-report questionnaires assessing executive dysfunction, depression, anxiety, stress, general self-efficacy, and satisfaction with life. Before analyses the data were randomly split into 2 subsets (A and B). Exploratory factor analysis performed on Subset A produced a 3-factor model (Factor 1: Inhibition, Factor 2: Volition, and Factor 3: Social Regulation) in which 15 of the original 20 items provided a revised factor structure that was superior to all other structures. A series of confirmatory factor analyses performed on Subset B confirmed that this revised factor structure was valid and reliable. The revised structure, labeled the DEX-R, was found to be a reliable and valid tool for assessing behavioral symptoms of dysexecutive functioning in mixed community, psychiatric, and neurological samples. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved)
Psychological Assessment – Vol 27, Iss 1

Development and validation of a racial discrimination measure for Cambodian American adolescents.

To date, the majority of studies examining experiences of racial discrimination among youth use measures initially developed for African American and Latino adults or college students. Few studies have attended to the ways in which discrimination experiences may be unique for Asian American youth, particularly subgroups such as Southeast Asians. The purpose of this study was twofold: (a) to describe the development of a racial discrimination measure using community-based participatory research with Cambodian American adolescents and (b) to psychometrically test the measure with respect to validity and reliability. This research used mixed-methods and comprised 3 phases. Phase 1 consisted of qualitative focus group research to assess community-identified needs. Phase 2 included quantitative survey development with community members and resulted in an 18-item measure assessing the frequency of ethnicity-based discrimination. Phase 3 involved psychometric testing of the measure’s validity and reliability (n = 423). Exploratory factor analysis procedures yielded a 3-factor structure describing peer, school, and police discrimination from all items, capturing 96% of the combined variance. Using confirmatory factor analysis, the data demonstrated good fit with the 3-factor structure (CFI = .98; RMSEA = .054), with factor loadings ranging from .59 to .96 and all estimates statistically significant at the p < .05 level. Correlational analyses of racial discrimination subfactors and depression supported concurrent validity. In sum, this measure can be used to examine the degree and sources of racial discrimination reported by Cambodian American adolescents and potentially other adolescents of Southeast Asian descent living in diverse urban communities. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved)
Asian American Journal of Psychology – Vol 6, Iss 1

Adaptation française et validation d’une échelle d’enrichissement travail-famille. / French adaptation and validation of a scale of work-family enrichment.

The work-family interface can be examined in terms of conflict or enrichment. The majority of previous studies have focused on the determinants and consequences of work-family conflict. However, a more complete picture of the situation requires an examination of how work and family roles can mutually enrich each other. Until now, scholars did not have a validated measure in French to capture this construct. This article presents the results of 2 studies that establish the psychometric properties of the Échelle d’enrichissement travail-famille (ÉETF), a French translation of the Work-Family Enrichment Scale from Carlson, Kacmar, Wayne, and Grzywacz (2006). Factorial analyses, exploratory (Study 1) and confirmatory (Study 2), were conducted on data collected from French speaking workers in Québec. The results show satisfactory internal consistency and confirm the factorial structure of the scale. Furthermore, the construct validity of the scale was confirmed (Study 2). Indeed, the results of Study 2 showed that work-family and family work enrichment are positively related to affective organisational commitment, positive affects, satisfaction with work, family and in life in general, and negatively related to physical health problems and negative affects. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved)
Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science/Revue canadienne des sciences du comportement – Vol 47, Iss 2

Validation of the internalization of the Model Minority Myth Measure (IM-4) and its link to academic performance and psychological adjustment among Asian American adolescents.

There is limited research examining psychological correlates of a uniquely racialized experience of the model minority stereotype faced by Asian Americans. The present study examined the factor structure and fit of the only published measure of the internalization of the model minority myth, the Internalization of the Model Minority Myth Measure (IM-4; Yoo et al., 2010), with a sample of 155 Asian American high school adolescents. We also examined the link between internalization of the model minority myth types (i.e., myth associated with achievement and myth associated with unrestricted mobility) and psychological adjustment (i.e., affective distress, somatic distress, performance difficulty, academic expectations stress), and the potential moderating effect of academic performance (cumulative grade point average). Results suggested the 2-factor model of the IM-4 had an acceptable fit to the data and supported the factor structure using confirmatory factor analyses. Internalizing the model minority myth of achievement related positively to academic expectations stress; however, internalizing the model minority myth of unrestricted mobility related negatively to academic expectations stress, both controlling for gender and academic performance. Finally, academic performance moderated the model minority myth associated with unrestricted mobility and affective distress link and the model minority myth associated with achievement and performance difficulty link. These findings highlight the complex ways in which the model minority myth relates to psychological outcomes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved)
Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology – Vol 21, Iss 2

Stereotype validation: The effects of activating negative stereotypes after intellectual performance.

With regard to intellectual performance, a large body of research has shown that stigmatized group members may perform more poorly when negative, self-relevant stereotypes become activated prior to a task. However, no research to date has identified the potential ramifications of stereotype activation that happens after—rather than before—a person has finished performing. Six studies examined how postperformance stereotype salience may increase the certainty individuals have in evaluations of their own performance. In the current research, the accessibility of gender or racial stereotypes was manipulated after participants completed either a difficult math test (Studies 1–5) or a test of child-care knowledge (Study 6). Consistent with predictions, stereotype activation was found to increase the certainty that women (Studies 1, 2, 4, and 5), African Americans (Study 3), and men (Study 6) had toward negative evaluations of their own test performance. These effects emerged when performance-related perceptions were stereotype consistent rather than inconsistent (Studies 1–6) and were found to be most pronounced among those who were highly identified with the stereotyped group (Study 5). Furthermore, greater certainty—triggered by negative stereotypes—predicted lowered domain-relevant beliefs (Studies 1, 2, 3, and 6) and differential exposure to domain-relevant stimuli (Studies 4 and 5). (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved)
Journal of Personality and Social Psychology – Vol 108, Iss 4

Development and validation of the Sociocultural Attitudes Towards Appearance Questionnaire-4 (SATAQ-4).

The Sociocultural Attitudes Towards Appearance Questionnaire-3 (SATAQ-3) and its earlier versions are measures designed to assess societal and interpersonal aspects of appearance ideals. Correlational, structural equation modeling, and prospective studies of the SATAQ-3 have shown consistent and significant associations with measures of body image disturbance and eating pathology. In the current investigation, the SATAQ-3 was revised to improve upon some conceptual limitations and was evaluated in 4 U.S. and 3 international female samples, as well as a U.S. male sample. In Study 1, exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses for a sample of women from the Southeastern United States (N = 859) indicated a 22-item scale with 5 factors: Internalization: Thin/Low Body Fat, Internalization: Muscular/Athletic, Pressures: Family, Pressures: Media, Pressures: Peers. This scale structure was confirmed in 3 independent and geographically diverse samples of women from the United States (East Coast N = 440, West Coast N = 304, and North/Midwest N = 349). SATAQ-4 scale scores demonstrated excellent reliability and good convergent validity with measures of body image, eating disturbance, and self-esteem. Study 2 replicated the factorial validity, reliability, and convergent validity of the SATAQ-4 in an international sample of women drawn from Italy, England, and Australia (N = 362). Study 3 examined a sample of college males from the United States (N = 271); the 5-factor solution was largely replicated, yet there was some evidence of an underlying structure unique to men. Future research avenues include additional item testing and modification of the scale for men, as well as adaptation of the measure for children and adolescents. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved)
Psychological Assessment – Vol 27, Iss 1

Validation de la version française de l’Inventaire de satisfaction conjugale msi-r. / Validation of the French version of the Marital Satisfaction Inventory (MSI-R).

This study investigated the validity and reliability of the French translation of the Marital Satisfaction Inventory—Revised (MSI-R). This multidimensional measure of relationship functioning has shown its contribution in international studies but has also been used in clinical context to measure the nature and intensity of distress in a marriage or other couple relationship. Internal reliability and temporal stability, computed on a sample of 160 French-speaking couples are good and similar to those observed in previous translations. The factorial structure recently proposed by Herrington et al. (2008) has been replicated within our sample. Results confirm the 2 factors, disharmony and disaffection, are relevant and that they could be used in future research using a brief version of the MSI-R. Overall, the results support the construct validity of this measure for French-speaking couples. Some links between the scales of the questionnaire and independent criteria of relationship functioning assessed with others instruments (DCI, CPQ, PFB) have been demonstrated, as well as links with sociodemographic variables and personality traits assessed with the NEO-FFI-R. Results are discussed in the light of their theoretical and clinical implications. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved)
Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science/Revue canadienne des sciences du comportement – Vol 47, Iss 1

Validation française de l’échelle multidimensionnelle satisfaction de vie chez l’élève (Multidimensional Students’ Life Satisfaction Scale). / French validation of the Multidimensional Students’ Life Satisfaction Scale.

This study presents a validation of the Multidimensional Students’ Life Satisfaction Scale (MSLSS, Huebner, 1994) into French on the basis of an 853 student sample selected from Grades 9 and 12. The internal reliabilities of all subscales (Cronbach’s Alpha coefficient) were above the criterion of 0.70. Exploratory analysis supported a 5-factor solution, whereas the confirmatory analysis enabled the validation of a 6-factor model with 5 first-order factors fitting onto 1 second-order factor. Convergent analysis demonstrated that the MSLSS correlates well with depression and other well-being measures, as expected. The MSLSS was found to be reliable and valid for the French context. Furthermore, it appears that the scale, and more specifically its academic dimension, is moderately predictive of student achievement. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved)
Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science/Revue canadienne des sciences du comportement – Vol 47, Iss 1

Validation of direct and indirect measures of preference for sexualized violence.

Individuals differ in the extent to which they are interested in sexualized violence, as displayed in the frequent but not ubiquitous sexual interest in consensual acts of violent sexual role play and violent pornographic media in the normal population. The present research sought to develop and validate a multi-method assessment battery to measure individual differences in the preference for sexualized violence. Three indirect measures (Implicit Association Test, Semantic Misattribution Procedure, Viewing Time) were combined in an online study with 107 men and 103 women. Participants with and without an affiliation with sadomasochistic sexual interest groups were recruited on corresponding Internet platforms. Results revealed that all 3 indirect measures converged in predicting self-reported sexual interest in non-consensual sexuality. Specifically, for men all indirect measures were related to non-consensual sadistic sexual interest, whereas for women an association with masochistic sexual interest was found. Stimulus artefacts versus genuine gender differences are discussed as potential explanations of this dissociation. An outlook on the usability of the assessment battery in applied settings is delivered. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)
Psychological Assessment – Vol 26, Iss 4