Validation of the Perceived Parental Autonomy Support Scale (P-PASS).

Using a multidimensional perspective, the Perceived Parental Autonomy Support Scale (P-PASS) assesses autonomy-supportive and controlling parenting (Grolnick & Pomerantz, 2009). Two studies document the instrument’s psychometric properties (Study 1, N = 210, mean age = 18.8 years; Study 2, N = 315, mean age = 18.5 years). Exploratory factor analyses first show that the P-PASS factor structure is best described by a 2-factor solution, 1 representing perceived autonomy support and the other, controlling parenting. Cronbach’s alphas confirm the internal consistency of the P-PASS scales (α > .89), and correlation patterns with the Psychological Control Scale (Barber, 1996) and other parenting components (i.e., acceptance and monitoring) support convergent and divergent validity. Hierarchical regressions also show that perceived autonomy support predicts young adults’ adjustment, above and beyond controlling parenting (Studies 1 and 2) and parental acceptance and monitoring (Study 2). Overall, these results suggest the P-PASS usefulness in studying perceived autonomy-supportive and controlling parenting. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved)
Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science/Revue canadienne des sciences du comportement – Vol 47, Iss 3

Validation of the Avoidance and Inflexibility Scale (AIS) among treatment-seeking smokers.

The Avoidance and Inflexibility Scale (AIS; Gifford et al., 2004) was derived as a smoking-specific measure of experiential avoidance. However, there has been little investigation of the psychometric proprieties of the AIS and no published work on the topic. The current study aimed to test the reliability and validity of the AIS among a sample of adult treatment-seeking daily smokers (n = 465; 48.2% female, 17.8 [SD = 9.60] cigarettes per day). The AIS was administered at 3 time points (baseline, quit-day, and 1 month postquit) as part of a larger smoking cessation trial. An exploratory factor analysis indicated a 2-factor solution, described by inflexibility and avoidance because of smoking related “thoughts/feelings” (9 items) and “somatic sensations” (4 items). Results revealed that the AIS-total and factor scores demonstrated high internal consistency and test–retest reliability. The AIS total and factor scores also displayed high convergent, discriminant, and incremental predictive validity with theoretically relevant smoking and affective variables. The present data suggest that the AIS measure appears to be a valid and reliable smoking-specific index of experiential avoidance. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved)
Psychological Assessment – Vol 27, Iss 2

Construction and initial validation of the Gendered Racial Microaggressions Scale for Black women.

The purpose of this study was to develop a measure of gendered racial microaggressions (i.e., subtle and everyday verbal, behavioral, and environmental expressions of oppression based on the intersection of one’s race and gender) experienced by Black women by applying an intersectionality framework to Essed’s (1991) theory of gendered racism and Sue, Capodilupo, et al.’s (2007) model of racial microaggressions. The Gendered Racial Microaggressions Scale (GRMS), was developed to assess both frequency and stress appraisal of microaggressions, in 2 separate studies. After the initial pool of GRMS items was developed, we received input from a community-based focus group of Black women and an expert panel. In Study 1, an exploratory factor analysis using a sample of 259 Black women resulted in a multidimensional scale with 4 factors as follows: (a) Assumptions of Beauty and Sexual Objectification, (b) Silenced and Marginalized, (c) Strong Black Woman Stereotype, and (d) Angry Black Woman Stereotype. In Study 2, results of confirmatory factor analyses using an independent sample of 210 Black women suggested that the 4-factor model was a good fit of the data for both the frequency and stress appraisal scales. Supporting construct validity, the GRMS was positively related to the Racial and Ethnic Microaggressions Scale (Nadal, 2011) and the Schedule of Sexist Events (Klonoff & Landrine, 1995). In addition, the GRMS was significantly related to psychological distress, such that greater perceived gendered racial microaggressions were related to greater levels of reported psychological distress. Implications for future research and practice are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved)
Journal of Counseling Psychology – Vol 62, Iss 2

Psychometric validation of the BDI-II among HIV-positive CHARTER study participants.

Rates of depression are high among individuals living with HIV. Accurate assessment of depressive symptoms among this population is important for ensuring proper diagnosis and treatment. The Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) is a widely used measure for assessing depression, however its psychometric properties have not yet been investigated for use with HIV-positive populations in the United States. The current study was the first to assess the psychometric properties of the BDI-II among a large cohort of HIV-positive participants sampled at multiple sites across the United States as part of the CNS HIV Antiretroviral Therapy Effects Research (CHARTER) study. The BDI-II test scores showed good internal consistency (α = .93) and adequate test–retest reliability (internal consistency coefficient = 0.83) over a 6-mo period. Using a “gold standard” of major depressive disorder determined by the Composite International Diagnostic Interview, sensitivity and specificity were maximized at a total cut-off score of 17 and a receiver operating characteristic analysis confirmed that the BDI-II is an adequate diagnostic measure for the sample (area under the curve = 0.83). The sensitivity and specificity of each score are provided graphically. Confirmatory factor analyses confirmed the best fit for a three-factor model over one-factor and two-factor models and models with a higher-order factor included. The results suggest that the BDI-II is an adequate measure for assessing depressive symptoms among U.S. HIV-positive patients. Cut-off scores should be adjusted to enhance sensitivity or specificity as needed and the measure can be differentiated into cognitive, affective, and somatic depressive symptoms. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved)
Psychological Assessment – Vol 27, Iss 2

Development and validation of the Patriarchal Beliefs Scale.

The purpose of this research was to develop and validate a conceptually and psychometrically solid measure for patriarchal beliefs in samples of U.S. American adults from diverse demographic and geographic backgrounds. In Study 1, we identified 3 correlated factors of the Patriarchal Beliefs Scale (PBS) in data collected from the Internet (N = 279): Institutional Power of Men, Inferiority of Women, and Gendered Domestic Roles. In Study 2, data collected from the Internet (N = 284) supported both an oblique 3-factor structure and a bifactor structure of the PBS, through confirmatory factor analyses. Construct validity of the PBS was supported in relation to other gender-related measures. The PBS was correlated in expected directions with modern sexism, antifeminist attitudes, and egalitarian attitudes toward women. In Study 3, we examined measurement invariance across gender by using combined data from Study 1 and Study 2. All 3 factors of the oblique 3-factor model indicated measurement invariance, whereas the general factor represented in the bifactor model indicated nonequivalence. Mean differences in patriarchal beliefs were found for such demographic variables as gender, sexual orientation, education, and social class. Recommendations for using the PBS, as well as implications for research and practice, are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved)
Journal of Counseling Psychology – Vol 62, Iss 2

The Circumscribed Fear Measure: Development and initial validation of a trans-stimulus phobia measure.

Extant stimulus-specific fear measures are limited to a small number of stimuli and contain significantly different content. This article describes 2 studies that develop a more flexible fear measure—the Circumscribed Fear Measure (CFM)—and examine its psychometric properties. In Study 1, participants (N = 771) completed an initial item pool while considering their most feared stimulus. Results of factor analyses were used to propose a 25-item, 5-factor measure that would span the domain of specific phobia reactions, applicable to different stimuli. In Study 2, participants (N = 959) completed the 25-item CFM, extant phobia measures, and a measure of disability. The CFM exhibited a 5-scale structure that had an equivalent structure across different stimuli. It showed good factorial validity, reliability, and generally good convergent and discriminant validity. Criterion validity was commensurate with that of extant phobia measures. The use of the measure as an index of an individual’s greatest fear is also discussed. The CFM shows promise and could have substantial research and clinical utility. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved)
Psychological Assessment – Vol 27, Iss 2

Assessing teachers’ positive psychological functioning at work: Development and validation of the Teacher Subjective Wellbeing Questionnaire.

This study reports on the initial development and validation of the Teacher Subjective Wellbeing Questionnaire (TSWQ) with 2 samples of educators—a general sample of 185 elementary and middle school teachers, and a target sample of 21 elementary school teachers experiencing classroom management challenges. The TSWQ is an 8-item self-report instrument for assessing teachers’ subjective wellbeing, which is operationalized via subscales measuring school connectedness and teaching efficacy. The conceptualization and development processes underlying the TSWQ are described, and results from a series of preliminary psychometric and exploratory analyses are reported to establish initial construct validity. Findings indicated that the TSWQ was characterized by 2 conceptually sound latent factors, that both subscales and the composite scale demonstrated strong internal consistency, and that all scales demonstrated convergent validity with self-reported school supports and divergent validity with self-reported stress and emotional burnout. Furthermore, results indicated that TSWQ scores did not differ according to teachers’ school level (i.e., elementary vs. middle), but that they did differ according to unique school environment (e.g., 1 middle school vs. another middle school) and teacher stressors (i.e., general teachers vs. teachers experiencing classroom management challenges). Results also indicated that, for teachers experiencing classroom challenges, the TSWQ had strong short-term predictive validity for psychological distress, accounting for approximately half of the variance in teacher stress and emotional burnout. Implications for theory, research, and the practice of school psychology are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved)
School Psychology Quarterly – Vol 30, Iss 2

A cluster analytic examination and external validation of psychopathic offender subtypes in a multisite sample of Canadian federal offenders.

The present study is a cluster analytic examination and validation of psychopathic offender subtypes from 4 combined samples of Canadian federally incarcerated offenders, most of whom were serving sentences for violent offenses. The men were rated on the Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R; Hare, 1991, 2003) on the basis of comprehensive file information and 314 cases were extracted using a PCL-R total cut score of 25. Cluster analysis of the 4 PCL-R facets converged at a 2-cluster solution: a primary subtype characterized by prominent interpersonal and affective features of psychopathy and a secondary subtype characterized by comparatively few interpersonal features and high scores on the remaining facets. Validation analyses found that the vast majority of primary psychopathic offenders (74.1%) were White or of non-Aboriginal descent in contrast to the secondary subtype (47.6%). Secondary psychopathic offenders tended to be actuarially higher risk, have greater criminogenic needs, and to make greater amounts of treatment change on criminogenic targets; however, contrary to expectations, within-treatment changes from a violence reduction program were significantly associated with reductions in violent recidivism for primary, but not secondary, variants. There were few differences in rates of recidivism between the groups overall; secondary variants had higher rates of sexual violence which was largely accounted for by individual differences in baseline static risk. Implications for risk assessment, treatment planning, and the classification and etiology of primary and secondary psychopathy are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved)
Journal of Abnormal Psychology – Vol 124, Iss 2

Development and validation of a 6-item working alliance questionnaire for repeated administrations during psychotherapy.

Recently, researchers have started to measure the working alliance repeatedly across sessions of psychotherapy, relating the working alliance to symptom change session by session. Responding to questionnaires after each session can become tedious, leading to careless responses and/or increasing levels of missing data. Therefore, assessment with the briefest possible instrument is desirable. Because previous research on the Working Alliance Inventory has found the separation of the Goal and Task factors problematic, the present study examined the psychometric properties of a 2–factor, 6-item working alliance measure, adapted from the Working Alliance Inventory, in 3 patient samples (ns = 1,095, 235, and 234). Results showed that a bifactor model fit the data well across the 3 samples, and the factor structure was stable across 10 sessions of primary care counseling/psychotherapy. Although the bifactor model with 1 general and 2 specific factors outperformed the 1-factor model in terms of model fit, dimensionality analyses based on the bifactor model results indicated that in practice the instrument is best treated as unidimensional. Results support the use of composite scores of all 6 items. The instrument was validated by replicating previous findings of session-by-session prediction of symptom reduction using the Autoregressive Latent Trajectory model. The 6-item working alliance scale, called the Session Alliance Inventory, is a promising alternative for researchers in search for a brief alliance measure to administer after every session. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved)
Psychological Assessment – Vol 27, Iss 1

Psychometric validation of the Dysexecutive Questionnaire (DEX).

This study reported on the validation of the psychometric properties, the factorability, validity, and sensitivity of the Dysexecutive Questionnaire (DEX) in 3 clinical and nonclinical samples. A mixed sample of 997 participants—community (n = 663), psychiatric (depressed [n = 92] and anxious [n = 122]), and neurologically impaired (n = 120)—completed self-report questionnaires assessing executive dysfunction, depression, anxiety, stress, general self-efficacy, and satisfaction with life. Before analyses the data were randomly split into 2 subsets (A and B). Exploratory factor analysis performed on Subset A produced a 3-factor model (Factor 1: Inhibition, Factor 2: Volition, and Factor 3: Social Regulation) in which 15 of the original 20 items provided a revised factor structure that was superior to all other structures. A series of confirmatory factor analyses performed on Subset B confirmed that this revised factor structure was valid and reliable. The revised structure, labeled the DEX-R, was found to be a reliable and valid tool for assessing behavioral symptoms of dysexecutive functioning in mixed community, psychiatric, and neurological samples. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved)
Psychological Assessment – Vol 27, Iss 1