Établissement et validation d’une mesure de la motivation à cesser la consommation de médicaments psychotropes chez les personnes âgées. / Development and validation of a measure of motivation to stop consumption of psychotropic drugs in the elderly.

The goal of the present project was to develop and validate a measure designed to assess motivation in the elderly to cease psychotropic drugs, specifically benzodiazepines, by the elderly: the Motivation to Discontinue Benzodiazepines Scale (MDBS). This instrument was conceptualised according to self-determination theory, and comprises five subscales that correspond to the motivational subtypes of this theoretical framework (extrinsic motivation by integrated, identified, introjected, external regulation, and amotivation). The MDBS was distributed to 399 consumers of benzodiazepines (157 men, 242 women; mean age = 74.62 years, SD = 5.59). Results revealed that the MDBS possessed sound psychometric properties. The MDBS’ subscales displayed no positive correlations with social desirability. The factorial structure of the MDBS was documented by a confirmatory factor analysis. Convergent validity was examined by means of correlations with a variety of relevant psychological and behavioural constructs. The reliability of the subscales of the MDBS was satisfactory. Results are discussed in terms of their implications for measurement and intervention issues pertaining to the use of benzodiazepines in the elderly. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)
Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science/Revue canadienne des sciences du comportement – Vol 46, Iss 3

Preliminary validation of the Sanctification of Social Justice Scale.

This study presents psychometric results for the initial validation of the Sanctification of Social Justice Scale (SSJS). We conceptualized the sanctification of social justice as how strongly individuals connect working for social justice to an expression of God’s will and what it means to be Christian. Across 4 studies including over 1,200 Christian college students, an exploratory factor analysis, confirmatory factor analysis, internal consistency, and convergent validity results all provide psychometric support for the 1-factor 5-item SSJS. This study extends sanctification theory to the previously unexamined domain of working for social justice and provides preliminary validation of a scale for use in research, intervention, and collaboration with Christian individuals and organizations. Limitations and implications for future research and use of the SSJS also are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)
Psychology of Religion and Spirituality – Vol 6, Iss 3

Validation of the use of video teleconferencing technology in the assessment of PTSD.

The Veterans Health Administration (VHA) has promoted the use of telehealth technologies to deliver mental health care to veterans with limited access to services on account of geographic and other barriers. The use of technology to deliver interventions to veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been a particular focus within VHA. Much less attention has been paid to the use of telehealth technologies to diagnose veterans with PTSD for both treatment and/or disability compensation purposes, in spite of the need for such services. The literature evaluating the use of video teleconferencing methods in the assessment of PTSD is limited; to our knowledge, only 1 previous study has been published. The current study evaluated the psychometric characteristics of the Clinician Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS) administered by video teleconferencing with a larger and more diverse sample of veterans. The CAPS raters had high interrater reliability and there were strong correlations between face-to-face CAPS assessments and video teleconferencing CAPS assessments for diagnosis and total severity. The results suggest that the CAPS can and should be used via video teleconferencing with veterans who have barriers to face-to-face evaluations. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)
Psychological Services – Vol 11, Iss 3

The Concise Physical Activity Questionnaire (CPAQ): Its development, validation, and application to firefighter occupational health.

Physical activity is related to many important benefits in occupational health, but existing measures tend to be too long and involved for organizational application. The aim of this research was to create and construct validate the Concise Physical Activity Questionnaire (CPAQ), a very brief measure of physical activity for use in cross-sectional research. Four items were generated based on past research, Center for Disease Control guidelines, and input from health professionals. Across 2 studies, this scale was examined in both a laboratory and applied setting. In Study 1, 238 students completed the CPAQ, plus physiological and self-report measures relating to health. Results supported construct validity: the CPAQ related negatively to resting heart rate, health problems, BMI, and stress, and positively to gym attendance. In Study 2, 305 firefighters completed survey questionnaires. CPAQ scores related negatively to self-report burnout, and health problems and objective absenteeism measures, providing initial evidence of the CPAQ’s usefulness in occupational health research. Suggestions for future research to apply and understand the CPAQ in the workplace are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)
International Journal of Stress Management – Vol 21, Iss 3

The Religious and Spiritual Struggles Scale: Development and initial validation.

Many people experience struggle around religious and spiritual aspects of life, as shown in a steadily growing body of research. A need now exists for more comprehensive, reliable, concise measurement of religious and spiritual (r/s) struggles through a scale that covers multiple domains. This article describes the development and initial validation of a 26-item measure, the Religious and Spiritual Struggles (RSS) Scale. The measure assesses six domains of r/s struggle: divine (negative emotion centered on beliefs about God or a perceived relationship with God), demonic (concern that the devil or evil spirits are attacking an individual or causing negative events), interpersonal (concern about negative experiences with religious people or institutions; interpersonal conflict around religious issues), moral (wrestling with attempts to follow moral principles; worry or guilt about perceived offenses by the self), doubt (feeling troubled by doubts or questions about one’s r/s beliefs), and ultimate meaning (concern about not perceiving deep meaning in one’s life). Study 1 used factor analytic techniques in two adult samples (Ns = 400 and 483) to refine the item pool for the RSS. Study 2, which sampled 1141 undergraduates, showed very good fit for a six-factor model using confirmatory factor analysis. Study 2 also provided evidence of convergent, discriminant and predictive validity by relating RSS scores to measures of religiousness, r/s struggle and mental health. Several potentially important demographic differences emerged on the RSS. For example, undergraduates without committed romantic relationships and those who self-identified as homosexual reported greater r/s struggles across multiple domains. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)
Psychology of Religion and Spirituality – Vol 6, Iss 3

The development and validation of the Readiness to Engage in Self-Management after Acute Traumatic Injury Questionnaire.

Objective: Although the management of acute traumatic injury has improved, long-term functional outcomes remain poor. Data suggest major improvements in outcome will require comprehensive, self-management (SM) interventions. However, little is known about trauma survivors’ willingness to participate in such interventions. The goal of this study was to create and validate an instrument based on the stages of change (SOC) framework to assess readiness to engage in SM programs following acute traumatic injury. Method: The Readiness to Engage in Self-Management after Acute Traumatic Injury (RESMATI) was developed based on SOC theory. Participants (N = 150) were admitted to a Level I trauma center for treatment of severe trauma and completed the RESMATI 3 to 12 months postinjury. A random sample (n = 60) completed a reassessment 1 month later to determine item stability. A principal components analysis and an exploratory factor analysis were conducted. Results: The analyses of the 34 RESMATI items yielded a 5-factor model, collapsed into 3 domains based on SOC theory. Two factors were classified as “precontemplation,” 2 factors were classified as “contemplation,” and 1 factor was classified as “action/maintenance.” All 3 domains had good internal consistency reliability (.71 to .92) and moderate test–retest reliability (.56 and .73). Conclusions: The exploratory factor analysis yielded 3 domains that were consistent with the SOC model. Two notable exceptions were the lack of a “preparation” domain and lack of distinction between the action and maintenance stages. The RESMATI is a reliable instrument that requires further testing to establish validity and utility in identifying individuals’ readiness to engage in SM following acute traumatic injury. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)
Rehabilitation Psychology – Vol 59, Iss 2

Adaptation en français et validation d’une échelle de mesure des peurs des personnes âgées (PPA). / French adaptation and validation of a scale measuring fear of the elderly (PPP).

Old age generates many concerns that can cause several adverse effects on the individual. Until now, clinicians and researchers had no French instrument to assess the fears of the elderly. This paper presents results of two studies that establish the psychometric properties of a French translation of WSOA (“The Worry Scale for the Older Adults”) of Wisocki et al. in 1998. The study describes the stages of a translation of the questionnaire and checks the factor structure, internal consistency and the quality of items from nonclinical aged participants. Study 2 was designed to assess the factor structure of the scale through confirmatory factor analysis and test the temporal stability of the scale. The overall results show that the scale has very good psychometric properties with a nonclinical population. This tool is an instrument of choice for clinicians, psychologists, and researchers seeking to identify quickly and effectively the concerns of elderly French. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)
Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science/Revue canadienne des sciences du comportement – Vol 46, Iss 3

Validation de l’échelle des dimensions de l’engagement scolaire (ÉDES) chez les élèves du primaire. / Validation of the Scale of the Dimensions of School Engagement among primary school students.

This study tests the reliability and validity of a multi-dimensional school engagement scale (EDES), a tool that was established to measure the behavioural, emotional and cognitive engagement of primary school pupils. The longitudinal design includes two measurement points. Data was collected during the same school year from a sample of 704 grade three and grade six pupils (51.6% boys) and their teachers. The results indicate that the tool presents construct validity and predictive validity, as well as satisfactory internal consistency. However, the test-retest reliability of the tool is debatable. When considered separately, each of the dimensions is predictive of pupil achievement in French and mathematics at the end of the year. However, when all three dimensions are considered simultaneously, only the behavioural sphere of engagement is predictive of pupil achievement. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)
Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science/Revue canadienne des sciences du comportement – Vol 46, Iss 2

Object relations, interpersonal functioning, and health in a nonclinical sample: Construct validation and norms for the TAT SCORS-G.

Applying the Social Cognition and Object Relations Scale-Global (SCORS-G; Stein, Hilsenroth, Slavin-Mumford, & Pinsker, 2011; Westen, 1995) rating method to Thematic Apperception Test (TAT; Murray, 1943) narratives, this study of undergraduates aimed to (a) assess the component structure and construct validity of the SCORS-G in a nonclinical sample and (b) contribute to the development of a set of norms to guide clinical interpretation of this method. A 2-component solution for the SCORS-G entailed cognitive and affective components. Support for construct validity came from known-groups analyses in which this nonclinical sample was healthier on all 8 scales of the SCORS-G compared with a composite of previously published clinical samples. The cognitive scales (complexity of representations of people, understanding of social causality) were particularly strong in differentiating between the nonclinical and clinical groups. Additionally, in the overall sample the affective component of the SCORS-G was positively, significantly, and meaningfully related to a self-report measure of interpersonal functioning. This association was stronger among male participants; among females, the affective component was more strongly and negatively correlated with self-reported physical symptoms. Unexpectedly, the affective component did not correlate with a self-report measure of mental health, but its correlation with a performance-based measure of mental health involved a small effect in the predicted direction. Addressing a gap in the literature, this study also contributes a set of nonclinical norms that can be used to guide clinical interpretation of the TAT SCORS-G with some patients. Theoretical and clinical implications, as well as limitations, are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)
Psychoanalytic Psychology – Vol 31, Iss 3

Development and validation of Triarchic Construct Scales from the Psychopathic Personality Inventory.

The Triarchic model of psychopathy describes this complex condition in terms of distinct phenotypic components of boldness, meanness, and disinhibition. Brief self-report scales designed specifically to index these psychopathy facets have thus far demonstrated promising construct validity. The present study sought to develop and validate scales for assessing facets of the Triarchic model using items from a well-validated existing measure of psychopathy—the Psychopathic Personality Inventory (PPI). A consensus-rating approach was used to identify PPI items relevant to each Triarchic facet, and the convergent and discriminant validity of the resulting PPI-based Triarchic scales were evaluated in relation to multiple criterion variables (i.e., other psychopathy inventories, antisocial personality disorder features, personality traits, psychosocial functioning) in offender and nonoffender samples. The PPI-based Triarchic scales showed good internal consistency and related to criterion variables in ways consistent with predictions based on the Triarchic model. Findings are discussed in terms of implications for conceptualization and assessment of psychopathy. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)
Psychological Assessment – Vol 26, Iss 2