Development and validation of the Hookup Motives Questionnaire (HMQ).

Despite the high prevalence rates and growing research on hooking up among college students, no multidimensional inventory exists in the literature to assess motivations for hooking up. In the current study, we report on the development and validation of the Hookup Motives Questionnaire (HMQ), designed to assess the various reasons for hooking up. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were conducted using 2 samples of college students (Campus 1, N = 401; Campus 2, N = 367). Exploratory factor analysis was undertaken to explore the psychometric properties of an initial set of 25 items, and confirmatory factor analysis was conducted to evaluate additional properties of the factor structure. The final factor structure of the HMQ contained 19 items that tapped 5 subscales representing social-sexual, social-relationship, enhancement, coping, and conformity motives. Results demonstrated good internal consistency and discriminant validity for the subscales. Moreover, criterion-related validity was satisfied by showing that HMQ subscales significantly correlated with hookup approval and behavior. Gender differences on the measures were found. The inventory offers considerable potential as a psychometrically sound instrument that may be administered to understand reasons for engaging in potentially risky hookup behaviors and used to inform the design of sexual health programs and interventions targeting young adults. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)
Psychological Assessment – Vol 26, Iss 4

Development and preliminary validation of the Racism-Related Coping Scale.

This paper describes the development and preliminary validation of the Racism-Related Coping Scale (RRCS), which we designed as a measure of the specific strategies Blacks use to deal with and resist racism. Factor analyses found 8 domains (59 items) of Racism-Related Coping for Blacks: Racially Conscious Action, Hypervigilance, Confrontation, Empowered Action, Resistance, Bargaining, Spiritual Coping, and Anger Regulation. Preliminary reliability and validity were assessed with a sample of Black participants (N = 307) using correlations with the Black Racial Identity Attitudes Scale (Helms & Parham, 1996), the Africultural Coping Systems Inventory (Utsey, Ponterotto, Reynolds, & Cancelli, 2000), and regression analyses with symptom scales of the Brief Symptom Inventory (Derogatis & Melisaratos, 1983). RRCS domains were correlated with Racial Identity Status Attitudes, Africultural Coping, and psychological symptoms. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)
Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy – Vol 6, Iss 6

Development and validation of the Hunger Sensitivity Scale (HSS) among university students.

Hunger sensitivity is a cognitive style associated with heightened distress in response to hunger sensations. We hypothesized that hunger sensitivity would be predictive of attitudes surrounding eating. Our goal was to develop and validate the Hunger Sensitivity Scale (HSS). Item generation was based on conceptual grounds. The resulting 29-item instrument was subjected to item analysis using a sample of 556 university student participants and demonstrated excellent scale score reliability. After parallel analysis and exploratory factor analysis with 50% of the sample that supported a unifactorial solution, confirmatory factor analysis (with the remainder of the sample) was conducted. After the deletion of 16 items, the unifactorial model was supported. A second study, with a separate sample of 101 university students, involved administration of the 13-item HSS along with discriminant validity measures and measures tapping eating-related attitudes. Scores on the HSS were significantly associated with measures of hunger, disinhibition, rumination, and bulimia. Discriminant validity was supported through the absence of significant correlations with general anxiety, depression, and anxiety sensitivity. With more research, the HSS may have potential clinical application through the addition of a new dimension to the existing clinical assessment armamentarium. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved)
Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science/Revue canadienne des sciences du comportement – Vol 47, Iss 1

Confirmatory factor analysis of the Moral Foundations Questionnaire: Independent scale validation in a New Zealand sample.

The Moral Foundations Questionnaire (MFQ) measures five universal moral foundations of Harm/care, Fairness/reciprocity, Ingroup/loyalty, Authority/respect, and Purity/sanctity. This study provided an independent test of the factor structure of the MFQ using Confirmatory Factor Analysis in a large New Zealand national probability sample (N = 3,994). We compared the five-factor model proposed by Moral Foundations Theory against alternative single-factor, two-factor, three-factor, and hierarchical (five foundations as nested in two second order factors) models of morality. The hypothesized five-factor model proposed by Moral Foundations Theory provided a reasonable fit. These findings indicate that the five-factor model of moral foundations holds in New Zealand, and provides the first independent test of the factor structure of the Moral Foundations Questionnaire. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)
Social Psychology – Vol 45, Iss 6

Automated facial coding: Validation of basic emotions and FACS AUs in FaceReader.

In this study, we validated automated facial coding (AFC) software—FaceReader (Noldus, 2014)—on 2 publicly available and objective datasets of human expressions of basic emotions. We present the matching scores (accuracy) for recognition of facial expressions and the Facial Action Coding System (FACS) index of agreement. In 2005, matching scores of 89% were reported for FaceReader. However, previous research used a version of FaceReader that implemented older algorithms (version 1.0) and did not contain FACS classifiers. In this study, we tested the newest version (6.0). FaceReader recognized 88% of the target emotional labels in the Warsaw Set of Emotional Facial Expression Pictures (WSEFEP) and Amsterdam Dynamic Facial Expression Set (ADFES). The software reached a FACS index of agreement of 0.67 on average in both datasets. The results of this validation test are meaningful only in relation to human performance rates for both basic emotion recognition and FACS coding. The human emotions recognition for the 2 datasets was 85%, therefore FaceReader is as good at recognizing emotions as humans. To receive FACS certification, a human coder must reach an agreement of 0.70 with the master coding of the final test. Even though FaceReader did not attain this score, action units (AUs) 1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 9, 12, 15, and 25 might be used with high accuracy. We believe that FaceReader has proven to be a reliable indicator of basic emotions in the past decade and has a potential to become similarly robust with FACS. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)
Journal of Neuroscience, Psychology, and Economics – Vol 7, Iss 4

Psychology professor says social validation, meeting expectations among reasons we overeat on Thanksgiving

Thanksgiving is a time for family, friends and feasting—lots of feasting. So is it any surprise that our eyes always seem to become so much bigger than our stomachs at this time of year?
Medical Xpress – Psychology & Psychiatry News

Validation française de la verbal commentary on Physical Appearance Scale. / French validation of the Verbal Commentary on Physical Appearance Scale.

Weight and appearance-based commentaries are considered as an important source of sociocultural pressure. They are related to development of body dissatisfaction and eating disorders. The Verbal Commentary on Physical Appearance Scale (VCOPAS; Herbozo & Thompson, 2006a) was developed in order to evaluate frequency of negative and positive comments related to weight and shape. This study aims to validate the French version the VCOPAS and to test relationships between positive and negative feedback, body dissatisfaction and body mass index in a sample of 886 young adult women. An exploratory factor analysis highlighted a three factors model gathered together 18 of the 21 items. Those three factors correspond to the three subscales from initial VCOPAS version: negative comments related to weight and shape (NWS); positive comments related to weight and shape (PWS); and positive comments related to general appearance (PGA). These ones demonstrated good internal consistency and test—retest reliability (> .70). Significant correlations were found between two VCOPAS subscales and body dissatisfaction. Nevertheless and contrary to the initial version, no correlation was found between PGA subscale and body dissatisfaction. VCOPAS seems to be a very useful tool for further researches dealing with the role of weight and appearance-related comments as in the development and maintenance of body dissatisfaction and eating disturbances. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)
Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science/Revue canadienne des sciences du comportement – Vol 46, Iss 4

Probing the structural validity of the Self-Beliefs in Social Anxiety Scale (SBSA): Adaptation and validation in a French-speaking community sample.

Clark and Wells’ (1995) model of social phobia proposes that there are 3 types of maladaptive self-beliefs responsible for social anxiety (high standard, conditional, and unconditional beliefs). Wong and Moulds (2009) recently developed the 15-item Self-Beliefs Social Anxiety (SBSA) scale that measures the strength of the self-belief types proposed by this model. They tested the structural validity of the SBSA and found that a correlated 3-factor model best fitted the data. However, they conducted their analyses on an undergraduate sample restricted in terms of age range and educational levels. Additionally, no previous study has tested whether this 3-factor solution is replicable. Moreover, no cross-cultural adaptation of the scale has been conducted. The present study was designed to address these issues. We tested whether the SBSA best fit with a 3-factor solution among a French-speaking community sample (N = 611). Confirmatory factor analyses replicated the model implied by Wong and Moulds (2011a), and, more generally, the theoretical model of Clark and Wells (1995). Moreover, good scale reliability and concurrent validity were observed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)
Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science/Revue canadienne des sciences du comportement – Vol 46, Iss 4

Development and validation of the Overall Depression Severity and Impairment Scale.

The need to capture severity and impairment of depressive symptomatology is widespread. Existing depression scales are lengthy and largely focus on individual symptoms rather than resulting impairment. The Overall Depression Severity and Impairment Scale (ODSIS) is a 5-item, continuous measure designed for use across heterogeneous mood disorders and with subthreshold depressive symptoms. This study examined the psychometric properties of the ODSIS in outpatients in a clinic for emotional disorders (N = 100), undergraduate students (N = 566), and community-based adults (N = 189). Internal consistency, latent structure, item response theory, classification accuracy, convergent and discriminant validity, and differential item functioning analyses were conducted. ODSIS scores exhibited excellent internal consistency, and confirmatory factor analyses supported a unidimensional structure. Item response theory results demonstrated that the ODSIS provides more information about individuals with high levels of depression than those with low levels of depression. Responses on the ODSIS discriminated well between individuals with and without a mood disorder and depression-related severity across clinical and subclinical levels. A cut score of 8 correctly classified 82% of outpatients as with or without a mood disorder; it evidenced a favorable balance of sensitivity and specificity and of positive and negative predictive values. The ODSIS demonstrated good convergent and discriminant validity, and results indicate that items function similarly across clinical and nonclinical samples. Overall, findings suggest that the ODSIS is a valid tool for measuring depression-related severity and impairment. The brevity and ease of use of the ODSIS support its utility for screening and monitoring treatment response across a variety of settings. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)
Psychological Assessment – Vol 26, Iss 3

Établissement et validation d’une mesure de la motivation à cesser la consommation de médicaments psychotropes chez les personnes âgées. / Development and validation of a measure of motivation to stop consumption of psychotropic drugs in the elderly.

The goal of the present project was to develop and validate a measure designed to assess motivation in the elderly to cease psychotropic drugs, specifically benzodiazepines, by the elderly: the Motivation to Discontinue Benzodiazepines Scale (MDBS). This instrument was conceptualised according to self-determination theory, and comprises five subscales that correspond to the motivational subtypes of this theoretical framework (extrinsic motivation by integrated, identified, introjected, external regulation, and amotivation). The MDBS was distributed to 399 consumers of benzodiazepines (157 men, 242 women; mean age = 74.62 years, SD = 5.59). Results revealed that the MDBS possessed sound psychometric properties. The MDBS’ subscales displayed no positive correlations with social desirability. The factorial structure of the MDBS was documented by a confirmatory factor analysis. Convergent validity was examined by means of correlations with a variety of relevant psychological and behavioural constructs. The reliability of the subscales of the MDBS was satisfactory. Results are discussed in terms of their implications for measurement and intervention issues pertaining to the use of benzodiazepines in the elderly. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)
Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science/Revue canadienne des sciences du comportement – Vol 46, Iss 3