Construct validation of self-reported stress scales.

The recently developed Perceived Stress Reactivity Scale (PSRS; Schlotz, Yim, Zoccola, Jansen, & Schulz, 2011) examines perceived stress reactivity with 6 different subscales. The authors of the current study build on initial validation work with this scale by evaluating patterns of the convergent and discriminant validity of scores on its 6 substantially correlated subscales. Examination of the relationships between the 6 PSRS subscales and other variables (personality, depressive affect, eudaimonic well-being, environmental demands, and aspects of work) indicated some differentiation between the different facets of stress reactivity. The PSRS scales also correlated highly with the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS). To account for all of these relationships, a structural regression model specifying a hierarchical factor model for the PSRS scales showed that some relationships (e.g., with neuroticism) were best modeled at the general stress factor level using a latent variable also defined by both the PSS and the PSRS subscales. The model also demonstrated lower level specific relationships that generated better fit than when all predictors were forced to relate to the PSRS only through the general stress factor. Results indicate that domain-specific aspects of stress can be differentiated, which ultimately could prove useful in research on mental health consequences of stress originating from different life domains. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)
Psychological Assessment – Vol 26, Iss 1

Development and validation of the Eating Loss of Control Scale.

Recurrent objective bulimic episodes (OBE) are a defining diagnostic characteristic of binge eating disorder (BED) and bulimia nervosa (BN). OBEs are characterized by experiencing loss of control (LOC) while eating an unusually large quantity of food. Despite nosological importance and complex heterogeneity across patients, measurement of LOC has been assessed dichotomously (present/absent). This study describes the development and initial validation of the Eating Loss of Control Scale (ELOCS), a self-report questionnaire that examines the complexity of the LOC construct. Participants were 168 obese treatment-seeking individuals with BED who completed the Eating Disorder Examination interview and self-report measures. Participants rated their LOC-related feelings or behaviors on continuous Likert-type scales and reported the number of LOC episodes in the past 28 days. Principal component analysis identified a single-factor, 18-item scale, which demonstrated good internal reliability (α = .90). Frequency of LOC episodes was significantly correlated with frequency of OBEs and subjective bulimic episodes. The ELOCS demonstrated good convergent validity and was significantly correlated with greater eating pathology, greater emotion dysregulation, greater depression, and lower self-control but not with body mass index. The findings suggest that the ELOCS is a valid self-report questionnaire that may provide important clinical information regarding experiences of LOC in obese persons with BED. Future research should examine the ELOCS in other eating disorders and nonclinical samples. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)
Psychological Assessment – Vol 26, Iss 1

The Emotion Regulation Questionnaire: Validation of the ERQ-9 in two community samples.

The 10-item Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (ERQ) was developed by Gross and John (2003) to measure the habitual use of 2 emotion regulation strategies: reappraisal and suppression. Several studies using student samples have provided validation for the ERQ, although the only article (Wiltink et al., 2011) that evaluated the ERQ in a community sample was unable to replicate the original factor structure. Before using the ERQ in non-student samples, it is important to validate the scale in a sample broadly representative of the adult population and to determine the influence of demographic variables. The current study examined the psychometric properties of the ERQ in 2 community samples (Australia, N = 550; United Kingdom, N = 483; 17–95 years of age) using confirmatory analysis. The original ERQ factor structure was not supported by either the Australian or United Kingdom samples. However, with the removal of 1 item, a strong model fit was obtained for both samples (9-item ERQ [ERQ-9]). Using measurement invariance tests, the revised ERQ-9 was found to be equivalent across the samples and demographics (age, gender, and education). Gender, depression, anxiety, and stress were the only factors that were significantly associated with reappraisal and suppression use. Overall, the ERQ-9 provides better fit of the data than the 10-item ERQ. The utility of this measure is enhanced by the provision of normative data for males and females. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)
Psychological Assessment – Vol 26, Iss 1

Initial development and validation of the Basic Psychological Needs Questionnaire–Religiosity/Spirituality.

Self-determination theorists propose that the satisfaction of basic psychological needs facilitates the integration of meaning. Though previous research has utilized self-determination theory to investigate religiosity and spirituality, no known scale has directly aimed to measure religious/spiritual basic psychological need satisfaction. We investigated the factor structure of a newly developed measure, the Basic Psychological Needs Questionnaire–Religiosity/Spirituality, across two samples of college students. Exploratory factor analysis among 183 college students supported a theoretically meaningful two-factor structure whose content references Religious/Spiritual Relatedness and Religious/Spiritual Self-Mastery. Results from a confirmatory factor analysis among a second sample of 651 college students supported this factor structure. Validation evidence explored zero-order correlations between each factor and selected indicators of religiosity and spirituality across both samples. Divergences in observed correlations were found for students who self-identified as Christian and those who considered themselves either atheists, agnostics, or unaffiliated. Variation in observed correlations across these groups of students implicates the idiosyncratic character of basic psychological need satisfaction across distinct religious self-identifications. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)
Psychology of Religion and Spirituality – Vol 6, Iss 1

The Brief Experiential Avoidance Questionnaire: Development and initial validation.

The 62-item Multidimensional Experiential Avoidance Questionnaire (MEAQ) was recently developed to assess a broad range of experiential avoidance (EA) content. However, practical clinical and research considerations made a briefer measure of EA desirable. Using items from the original 62-item MEAQ, a 15-item scale was created that tapped content from each of the MEAQ’s six dimensions. Items were selected on the basis of their performance in 3 samples: undergraduates (n = 363), psychiatric outpatients (n = 265), and community adults (n = 215). These items were then evaluated using 2 additional samples (314 undergraduates and 201 psychiatric outpatients) and cross-validated in 2 new, independent samples (283 undergraduates and 295 community adults). The resulting measure (Brief Experiential Avoidance Questionnaire; BEAQ) demonstrated good internal consistency. It also exhibited strong convergence with respect to each of the MEAQ’s 6 dimensions. The BEAQ demonstrated expected associations with measures of avoidance, psychopathology, and quality of life and was distinguishable from negative affectivity and neuroticism. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)
Psychological Assessment – Vol 26, Iss 1

Development and initial validation of a measure of work, family, and school conflict.

This study reports the development and initial validation of a theoretically based measure of conflict between work, family, and college student roles. The measure was developed through the assessment of construct definitions and an assessment of measurement items by subject matter experts. Then, the measurement items were assessed with data from 500 college students who were engaged in work and family responsibilities. The results indicate that conflict between work, family, and school are effectively measured by 12 factors assessing the direction of conflict (e.g., work-to-school conflict, and school-to-work conflict) as well as the form of conflict (i.e., time, strain, and behavior based conflict). Sets of exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses demonstrated that the 12 factors of the new measure are distinct from the 6 factors of the Carlson, Kacmar, and Williams (2000) work-family conflict measure. Criterion validity of the measure was established through a series of regression analyses testing hypothesized relationships between antecedent and outcome variables with role conflict. Results indicate that role demand was a robust predictor of role conflict. To extend the literature, core self-evaluations and emotional stability were established as predictors of role conflict. Further, work, family, and school role satisfaction were significantly impacted with the presence of role conflict between work, family, and school. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)
Journal of Occupational Health Psychology – Vol 19, Iss 1

Validation d’un test d’inhibition auprès d’enfants présentant un trouble déficitaire de l’attention avec ou sans hyperactivité. / Validation of a test of inhibition with children presenting attention deficit disorder with or without hyperactivity.

The objective of this study was to assess the development of inhibition in 5–11 year-old children with the “Stroop Fruit” task (see Archibald & Kerns, 1999; Catale & Meulemans, 2005) and to examine the clinical value of this tool. Three-hundred forty-six French-speaking children without any developmental disorders or learning disabilities were included in this study. A clinical group of 25 children with attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder was also assessed with this task. Developmental analyses on age groups show an enhancement of performance in the interference condition between 5 and 8 years old. Furthermore, results also show that the clinical group performed significantly less accurately than the control group for the interference condition, which confirms the clinical interest of this tool. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)
Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science/Revue canadienne des sciences du comportement – Vol 46, Iss 1

Validation d’une échelle courte et multidimensionnelle de locus de contrôle spécifique au travail (MLCST). / Validation of a short multi-factor locus of control scale specific to work.

Generally, the work locus of control is conceptualised as a unidimensional construct (Rotter, 1966) that enables a distinction between individuals with an internal or an external locus of control. However, it was suggested that a multidimensional structure with three distinct factors that takes into account the influence of powerful significant others would be more accurate (Levenson, 1972). Furthermore, Paquet, Berjot, and Gillet (2009) recently proposed a distinction between two types of significant others and validated a four-factor locus of control scale applied to the sport context. Consequently, the aim of the present research was to validate a short four-factor locus of control scale specific to the work context. This scale considers two types of significant others known to be influential in the work context: the superior and colleagues. Over 200 participants from French health care institutions were recruited in order to test the proposed factorial structure of the scale as well as the discriminant and convergent validity of the proposed constructs. Furthermore, the four-factor model was tested in comparison with existing locus of control models. Results supported the proposed four-factor structure of the scale and the discriminant and convergent validity of the constructs. Implications of the present research for future studies in the work context are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)
Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science/Revue canadienne des sciences du comportement – Vol 46, Iss 1

The development and validation of the Male Assessment of Self-Objectification (MASO).

Self-objectification occurs when the appearance rather than the functionality of one’s body is considered to be the most important determinant of his or her self-worth and may be used to explain the drive for muscularity in men. Given mixed findings in the literature regarding men’s experiences of self-objectification, there is reason to believe that these discrepancies may be a result of the way in which self-objectification is currently being measured. Therefore, we sought to develop and validate an instrument to assess self-objectification specifically in men called the Male Assessment of Self-Objectification (MASO). To do so, three studies were conducted, comprising the initial scale development, validation, and test−retest phases of scale construction. Exploratory factor analysis was used in the first study where results yielded two factors. In the second study, results from confirmatory factor analyses indicated that the two-factor model of the MASO was superior to a one-factor model. Further, the MASO was significantly correlated to the drive for muscularity, body surveillance, and body shame as predicted. Lastly, the results of the final study supported the stability of the MASO over a 2-week period. Collectively, results indicate that the MASO demonstrates adequate validity and reliability in assessing self-objectification in men. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)
Psychology of Men & Masculinity – Vol 15, Iss 1

Perceived context of reception among recent Hispanic immigrants: Conceptualization, instrument development, and preliminary validation.

Context of reception has been discussed widely in the sociological and anthropological literature, but no measures of this construct exist. We designed a measure of perceived context of reception and provide initial support for the factorial validity, internal consistency reliability, and incremental and discriminant validity of scores generated by this measure. A sample of 302 recent-immigrant Hispanic parent-adolescent dyads from Miami and Los Angeles completed the new perceived context of reception measure, as well as measures of perceived discrimination; Hispanic/American cultural practices, values, and identifications; and depressive symptoms. In Phase 1, exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses extracted a factor for negative perceived context of reception. A subscale corresponding to this factor was used in Phase 2; for parents and adolescents, negative perceived context of reception and perceived discrimination were differentially associated with acculturation-related variables—suggesting discriminant validity between perceived discrimination and negative perceived context of reception. For adolescents at both sites and for parents in Los Angeles only, the negative perceived context of reception dimensions were significantly associated with depressive symptoms 6 months later, over and above the contribution made by perceived discrimination—suggesting incremental validity. Results are discussed in terms of perceived context of reception as a new and emerging construct. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)
Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology – Vol 20, Iss 1