Psychology professor says social validation, meeting expectations among reasons we overeat on Thanksgiving

Thanksgiving is a time for family, friends and feasting—lots of feasting. So is it any surprise that our eyes always seem to become so much bigger than our stomachs at this time of year?
Medical Xpress – Psychology & Psychiatry News

Validation française de la verbal commentary on Physical Appearance Scale. / French validation of the Verbal Commentary on Physical Appearance Scale.

Weight and appearance-based commentaries are considered as an important source of sociocultural pressure. They are related to development of body dissatisfaction and eating disorders. The Verbal Commentary on Physical Appearance Scale (VCOPAS; Herbozo & Thompson, 2006a) was developed in order to evaluate frequency of negative and positive comments related to weight and shape. This study aims to validate the French version the VCOPAS and to test relationships between positive and negative feedback, body dissatisfaction and body mass index in a sample of 886 young adult women. An exploratory factor analysis highlighted a three factors model gathered together 18 of the 21 items. Those three factors correspond to the three subscales from initial VCOPAS version: negative comments related to weight and shape (NWS); positive comments related to weight and shape (PWS); and positive comments related to general appearance (PGA). These ones demonstrated good internal consistency and test—retest reliability (> .70). Significant correlations were found between two VCOPAS subscales and body dissatisfaction. Nevertheless and contrary to the initial version, no correlation was found between PGA subscale and body dissatisfaction. VCOPAS seems to be a very useful tool for further researches dealing with the role of weight and appearance-related comments as in the development and maintenance of body dissatisfaction and eating disturbances. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)
Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science/Revue canadienne des sciences du comportement – Vol 46, Iss 4

Probing the structural validity of the Self-Beliefs in Social Anxiety Scale (SBSA): Adaptation and validation in a French-speaking community sample.

Clark and Wells’ (1995) model of social phobia proposes that there are 3 types of maladaptive self-beliefs responsible for social anxiety (high standard, conditional, and unconditional beliefs). Wong and Moulds (2009) recently developed the 15-item Self-Beliefs Social Anxiety (SBSA) scale that measures the strength of the self-belief types proposed by this model. They tested the structural validity of the SBSA and found that a correlated 3-factor model best fitted the data. However, they conducted their analyses on an undergraduate sample restricted in terms of age range and educational levels. Additionally, no previous study has tested whether this 3-factor solution is replicable. Moreover, no cross-cultural adaptation of the scale has been conducted. The present study was designed to address these issues. We tested whether the SBSA best fit with a 3-factor solution among a French-speaking community sample (N = 611). Confirmatory factor analyses replicated the model implied by Wong and Moulds (2011a), and, more generally, the theoretical model of Clark and Wells (1995). Moreover, good scale reliability and concurrent validity were observed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)
Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science/Revue canadienne des sciences du comportement – Vol 46, Iss 4

Development and validation of the Overall Depression Severity and Impairment Scale.

The need to capture severity and impairment of depressive symptomatology is widespread. Existing depression scales are lengthy and largely focus on individual symptoms rather than resulting impairment. The Overall Depression Severity and Impairment Scale (ODSIS) is a 5-item, continuous measure designed for use across heterogeneous mood disorders and with subthreshold depressive symptoms. This study examined the psychometric properties of the ODSIS in outpatients in a clinic for emotional disorders (N = 100), undergraduate students (N = 566), and community-based adults (N = 189). Internal consistency, latent structure, item response theory, classification accuracy, convergent and discriminant validity, and differential item functioning analyses were conducted. ODSIS scores exhibited excellent internal consistency, and confirmatory factor analyses supported a unidimensional structure. Item response theory results demonstrated that the ODSIS provides more information about individuals with high levels of depression than those with low levels of depression. Responses on the ODSIS discriminated well between individuals with and without a mood disorder and depression-related severity across clinical and subclinical levels. A cut score of 8 correctly classified 82% of outpatients as with or without a mood disorder; it evidenced a favorable balance of sensitivity and specificity and of positive and negative predictive values. The ODSIS demonstrated good convergent and discriminant validity, and results indicate that items function similarly across clinical and nonclinical samples. Overall, findings suggest that the ODSIS is a valid tool for measuring depression-related severity and impairment. The brevity and ease of use of the ODSIS support its utility for screening and monitoring treatment response across a variety of settings. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)
Psychological Assessment – Vol 26, Iss 3

Établissement et validation d’une mesure de la motivation à cesser la consommation de médicaments psychotropes chez les personnes âgées. / Development and validation of a measure of motivation to stop consumption of psychotropic drugs in the elderly.

The goal of the present project was to develop and validate a measure designed to assess motivation in the elderly to cease psychotropic drugs, specifically benzodiazepines, by the elderly: the Motivation to Discontinue Benzodiazepines Scale (MDBS). This instrument was conceptualised according to self-determination theory, and comprises five subscales that correspond to the motivational subtypes of this theoretical framework (extrinsic motivation by integrated, identified, introjected, external regulation, and amotivation). The MDBS was distributed to 399 consumers of benzodiazepines (157 men, 242 women; mean age = 74.62 years, SD = 5.59). Results revealed that the MDBS possessed sound psychometric properties. The MDBS’ subscales displayed no positive correlations with social desirability. The factorial structure of the MDBS was documented by a confirmatory factor analysis. Convergent validity was examined by means of correlations with a variety of relevant psychological and behavioural constructs. The reliability of the subscales of the MDBS was satisfactory. Results are discussed in terms of their implications for measurement and intervention issues pertaining to the use of benzodiazepines in the elderly. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)
Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science/Revue canadienne des sciences du comportement – Vol 46, Iss 3

Preliminary validation of the Sanctification of Social Justice Scale.

This study presents psychometric results for the initial validation of the Sanctification of Social Justice Scale (SSJS). We conceptualized the sanctification of social justice as how strongly individuals connect working for social justice to an expression of God’s will and what it means to be Christian. Across 4 studies including over 1,200 Christian college students, an exploratory factor analysis, confirmatory factor analysis, internal consistency, and convergent validity results all provide psychometric support for the 1-factor 5-item SSJS. This study extends sanctification theory to the previously unexamined domain of working for social justice and provides preliminary validation of a scale for use in research, intervention, and collaboration with Christian individuals and organizations. Limitations and implications for future research and use of the SSJS also are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)
Psychology of Religion and Spirituality – Vol 6, Iss 3

Validation of the use of video teleconferencing technology in the assessment of PTSD.

The Veterans Health Administration (VHA) has promoted the use of telehealth technologies to deliver mental health care to veterans with limited access to services on account of geographic and other barriers. The use of technology to deliver interventions to veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been a particular focus within VHA. Much less attention has been paid to the use of telehealth technologies to diagnose veterans with PTSD for both treatment and/or disability compensation purposes, in spite of the need for such services. The literature evaluating the use of video teleconferencing methods in the assessment of PTSD is limited; to our knowledge, only 1 previous study has been published. The current study evaluated the psychometric characteristics of the Clinician Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS) administered by video teleconferencing with a larger and more diverse sample of veterans. The CAPS raters had high interrater reliability and there were strong correlations between face-to-face CAPS assessments and video teleconferencing CAPS assessments for diagnosis and total severity. The results suggest that the CAPS can and should be used via video teleconferencing with veterans who have barriers to face-to-face evaluations. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)
Psychological Services – Vol 11, Iss 3

The Concise Physical Activity Questionnaire (CPAQ): Its development, validation, and application to firefighter occupational health.

Physical activity is related to many important benefits in occupational health, but existing measures tend to be too long and involved for organizational application. The aim of this research was to create and construct validate the Concise Physical Activity Questionnaire (CPAQ), a very brief measure of physical activity for use in cross-sectional research. Four items were generated based on past research, Center for Disease Control guidelines, and input from health professionals. Across 2 studies, this scale was examined in both a laboratory and applied setting. In Study 1, 238 students completed the CPAQ, plus physiological and self-report measures relating to health. Results supported construct validity: the CPAQ related negatively to resting heart rate, health problems, BMI, and stress, and positively to gym attendance. In Study 2, 305 firefighters completed survey questionnaires. CPAQ scores related negatively to self-report burnout, and health problems and objective absenteeism measures, providing initial evidence of the CPAQ’s usefulness in occupational health research. Suggestions for future research to apply and understand the CPAQ in the workplace are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)
International Journal of Stress Management – Vol 21, Iss 3

The Religious and Spiritual Struggles Scale: Development and initial validation.

Many people experience struggle around religious and spiritual aspects of life, as shown in a steadily growing body of research. A need now exists for more comprehensive, reliable, concise measurement of religious and spiritual (r/s) struggles through a scale that covers multiple domains. This article describes the development and initial validation of a 26-item measure, the Religious and Spiritual Struggles (RSS) Scale. The measure assesses six domains of r/s struggle: divine (negative emotion centered on beliefs about God or a perceived relationship with God), demonic (concern that the devil or evil spirits are attacking an individual or causing negative events), interpersonal (concern about negative experiences with religious people or institutions; interpersonal conflict around religious issues), moral (wrestling with attempts to follow moral principles; worry or guilt about perceived offenses by the self), doubt (feeling troubled by doubts or questions about one’s r/s beliefs), and ultimate meaning (concern about not perceiving deep meaning in one’s life). Study 1 used factor analytic techniques in two adult samples (Ns = 400 and 483) to refine the item pool for the RSS. Study 2, which sampled 1141 undergraduates, showed very good fit for a six-factor model using confirmatory factor analysis. Study 2 also provided evidence of convergent, discriminant and predictive validity by relating RSS scores to measures of religiousness, r/s struggle and mental health. Several potentially important demographic differences emerged on the RSS. For example, undergraduates without committed romantic relationships and those who self-identified as homosexual reported greater r/s struggles across multiple domains. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)
Psychology of Religion and Spirituality – Vol 6, Iss 3

The development and validation of the Readiness to Engage in Self-Management after Acute Traumatic Injury Questionnaire.

Objective: Although the management of acute traumatic injury has improved, long-term functional outcomes remain poor. Data suggest major improvements in outcome will require comprehensive, self-management (SM) interventions. However, little is known about trauma survivors’ willingness to participate in such interventions. The goal of this study was to create and validate an instrument based on the stages of change (SOC) framework to assess readiness to engage in SM programs following acute traumatic injury. Method: The Readiness to Engage in Self-Management after Acute Traumatic Injury (RESMATI) was developed based on SOC theory. Participants (N = 150) were admitted to a Level I trauma center for treatment of severe trauma and completed the RESMATI 3 to 12 months postinjury. A random sample (n = 60) completed a reassessment 1 month later to determine item stability. A principal components analysis and an exploratory factor analysis were conducted. Results: The analyses of the 34 RESMATI items yielded a 5-factor model, collapsed into 3 domains based on SOC theory. Two factors were classified as “precontemplation,” 2 factors were classified as “contemplation,” and 1 factor was classified as “action/maintenance.” All 3 domains had good internal consistency reliability (.71 to .92) and moderate test–retest reliability (.56 and .73). Conclusions: The exploratory factor analysis yielded 3 domains that were consistent with the SOC model. Two notable exceptions were the lack of a “preparation” domain and lack of distinction between the action and maintenance stages. The RESMATI is a reliable instrument that requires further testing to establish validity and utility in identifying individuals’ readiness to engage in SM following acute traumatic injury. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)
Rehabilitation Psychology – Vol 59, Iss 2